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A Detailed Comparison Between The Internal Audit And The Statutory Audit

A Detailed Comparison Between The Internal Audit And The Statutory Audit

An internal audit is always carried out in a business enterprise prior to the statutory audit. There exists some major difference between the two. This includes

  1. Main objective
  • An internal audit type is a procedure conducted within an organization to verify the continuous entries or records made by the office staff on the business transactions.
  • Whereas the statutory audit of organization employs an external auditor to check the financial records of their business and verify whether all the accounts including the profit and loss stick to the provisions of law and represent a fair view on the state of affairs of the business.


  1. Requirement
  • IA is not a mandatory type
  • In contrast to the above, the SA is really an unavoidable scheme for every business house included under the Companies Act.


  1. The person initiating the audit
  • For the IA, the whole process is initiated by an employee who works in the organization or is appointed by the firm, especially for the auditing purpose. He may or may not be professionally qualified for auditing.
  • Whereas, a qualified person is a must for SA.


  1. Relationship with management
  • In the case of an IA, usually conducted by the employee of the business firm itself, he is answerable to the management for any queries regarding his audit work even if his duties and responsibilities are decided by the management only. Further, the management can also vary or even restrict the power and authority of the staff auditor.
  • While this is not the case with a statutory auditor. His duties, responsibilities abide by the provision of law and is an independent character.


  1. Main duty
  • It is the responsibility of an internal auditor to point out the structural irregularities observed within the procedural aspects of a business organization. Moreover, he can even recommend different ideas or strategies like the automated trading robot to rectify these errors or practice. Further, he can assure whether the financial actions of the company are in harmony with the accounting systems of the same.
  • A statutory auditor is strictly concerned with the validity and lawfulness of the whole financial transactions of the enterprise. His work involves preparing or documenting a financial statement based on the business and financial functions of the organization.

However, at times the internal audit becomes helpful for the statutory audit. For example, when a confusion state arises on a particular data, the external auditor can quickly refer the internal audit documents to confirm it.

How Does Market-Drivers And Related Regulations Influence Electronic Trading?


Regulatory changes associated with the market helps in bringing trends in the trading sector. Any change occurring with this review can really affect both the supply and demand for market-making services and are often referred to as the drivers of adjustment in the market making framework.

Market-driven adjustments offered to MM services

It is a known fact that the market-making involves risk. Since the last years, many dedicated market participants from the most advanced economies and also from the several emerging markets have helped in decreasing the stress linked with these risks.

  • One way to achieve this is by selecting the typical financial instrument. When considered from the view of market liquidity, when a generous amount of supply-demand imbalance is sensed, the market-makers willingly come forward to take and mitigate the respective inventory risk and thereby helps in creating a marked decline in the dealers’ risk tolerance level that would adversely affect the economic market resilience.
  • As a result of financial crisis, many nations suffered a decline in the VaR aggregate which then became a trend among the major banks established with the advanced economies and is often bonded to widen the deleveraging efforts.


The main market driving factors include

  • Reassessing of risk-return trade-off: After experiencing the financial crunch, almost all the market makers have started reassessing the trading returns as if they are high and robust enough to justify the risk taken. The risk incentives from the return of similar activities have been revised and further has led to the reconsideration of allocating both capital and the funding cost to increase the rate of taking market risk.


  • A responsive way of risk measurement: Some of the risk measuring factors like VaR always tend to rise with the increase in volatility keeping risks close to the given trading constraints or VaR value. Special consideration should be given to the dealers’ feedback that signals the volatility changes and this help us to be ready with the decent risk measures. Both of these factors have a direct relationship and the MMs are forced to reduce their recent exposures aggressively than in the past.


  • Alternatives for redistributing risks: MMs are always ready with alternative ways for hedging or netting out their positions especially in the liquid markets. But with the rise of the financial crisis, all these derivatives and strategies have deteriorated and has proven to be less effective in nature. This, in fact, has reduced the risk tolerating level of MMs as they step in great positions that are truly difficult to hedge.



Reasons Why Shareholders Require Financial Statements

Reasons Why Shareholders Require Financial Statements

Investors require financial proclamations to assess their value speculations and assist them to settle on educated choices with respect to voting on corporate issues. While assessing ventures, investors can gather important information found on money-related articulations. There are various devices investors can utilize to do equity assessments, and it is essential for them to investigate the stocks utilizing an assortment of estimations. Accessible assessment measurements incorporate the following:

Profitability ratios

They are a gathering of money related measurements used to find out more how well an organization creates profit. ROE or Return on equity mirrors the level of investors’ value returned as net salary. This apparatus goes about as a measurement for productivity by demonstrating the measure of benefits organizations creates with an investor’s venture.

Liquidity ratios

They are measurements that assist investors to decide how an organization manages its income and debts that are short term. The most usually utilized liquidity proportion is the current proportion, which mirrors current resources that are divided by the liabilities and provides investors a gist of the organization’s productivity in utilizing the short term assets in order to cover up for short-term liabilities.

Larger current proportions are a decent sign that the organization deals with its liabilities fine. The current proportion can likewise be helpful in giving investors a thought of the capacity an organization has to produce money when required.

Debt ratios

They demonstrate an organization’s obligation concerns. The debt-to-equity proportion calculates the budgetary use an organization has, an estimation of aggregate liabilities isolated by investor value. A high ratio shows an organization has subsidized its development by debts. A lower ratio is a sign the organization is intensely troubled by obligation costs.

Efficiency ratios

They demonstrate how organizations oversee liabilities and assets. The stock turnover proportion uncovers the circumstances an organization offers and restocks during a given period. The outcomes from this proportion ought to be utilized in correlation with industry midpoints.

Price ratios

This concentrates particularly around on organization’s stock cost and its apparent incentive in the marketplace. This proportion is an assessment measurement that compares the current share cost of an organization’s stock with the earnings per share.

These and other assessment estimations can be ascertained utilizing the numbers on the financial statements of an organization. Speculators and market investigators rely upon these statements for value assessment. Assessments are made utilizing diverse measures as there isn’t any particular indicator that evaluates an organization’s money related position and potential development.

Tips For Growing A Successful Business

Tips For Growing A Successful Business

Every year thousands of companies are opened. Some business is closing and some are moving. Those who are moving in the business might have learned something to survive in the business and they become successful enterprises. One must have the good organizational skill, should be flexible and should have good planning to get success in the business. Before starting the business you plan out all the necessary steps to get success.

1) Get organized

To get success in the business you have to get organized. This is the main thing which will keep you on the top of the business. You have to create a to-do list every day and have to check the list after completing. This will make you remember that you are not forgetting anything. Then only you will be able to complete all the tasks and become successful in the business.

2) Keep detailed record                                                       

If you have seen successful business people they will have detailed records with them. The records they are maintaining our client files, contracts, accounting and tax records, purchase orders, permits, license, etc., By maintaining all these records you will find out more successful steps in the business.

3) Analyze your competition

If there is competition only you will be able to learn to solve all the problems facing in the business. Competition only increases your skill. What you have learned might be implemented in the business to become successful.

4) Understanding the risks

If you have analyzed the downsides of your business and take risks to solve the problem growth of the business takes place.

5) Be creative      

To improve your business you have to look forward to creating new ideas to increase the profit.

6) Stay focused

The proverb called ‘Rome was not built in a day’ is suitable for the business development. By starting the business itself you will not gain more profit. It takes some time to earn .so you have to stay focused to achieve your goal.

7) Make sacrifice       

In the starting of the business, you have to work hard. You have to spend more time working for your business, thereby spending less time with your family and friends.

8) Provide great service

Customer’s service is important in the development of all types of business. There should be a good relationship with your customer then only attracts old and also the new customers.

9) Ask feedback

Some business people are afraid to ask feedback from the customer. But the reality is from the negative feedback you can find out where you are lacking and execute the solution for the problem.


From the above tips, it is concluded that whatever type of business you are going to do, following this will make you successful.











Digital Assets: A Legal Commodity?

Digital Assets: A Legal Commodity?

A commodity market is a place where trading of the primary economic sector (raw materials) takes place rather than a manufactured product. At present there are 50 major commodity markets is present. It facilitates the investment of nearly 100 primary commodities.

Types of commodities                             

There are two types of commodities called hard commodities and soft commodities.

1) Hard commodities

Natural resources such as gold, oil, rubber, etc., which has to be extracted and mined come under the hard commodities

2) Soft commodities

Agricultural products such as wheat, soya bean, coffee, corn, fruit and livestock such as pork come under the soft commodities. Soft commodities depend upon the product grown

 Technical and fundamental analysis

Analysis helps the traders to find out when the rice in the market will rise and they came to know the entry and exit of the market. Commodity traders utilize numerous techniques for buying and selling. In this article, we will discuss the technical and fundamental analysis.

  1. a) Fundamental analysis

It depends upon the two factors, such as supply and demand (current and future) in commodity trading. Sometimes the supply will be low but the price increases and in sometimes supply is too much but the commodity price fall. The fundamental analysis predicts the future price action. It depends upon the political and economic factors. So one has to gather knowledge about political and economic data.

  1. b) Technical analysis

Commodity traders focus on technical analysis for trading. Technical analysis uses the historical and current data about commodities. This technique is not a science, it utilizes the graphical chart. When the chart is developed, the pattern is analyzed. And measure the outcome in terms of probabilities. The purpose of technical analysis is to predict the future price of the commodity.

The way to make money around the globe is changing and also changes the economics of a country. Cryptocurrencies like bitcoin and ethereum pour limelight at present. Any economic resource with a positive value which is represented in binary form is called digital assets. For the trading purpose, one has to obtain the binary code for the commodity and use it for trading later. Ethereum is a unique smart contract based crypto commodity system. .Ethereum code software was developed by Marc Weston. The aim of this code is to make the product profitable and anyone can use. Digital assets such as bonds, stocks, ledgers, and commodities are a few examples which have been centralized under the central government.

Bitcoin and ethereum are the two most popular blockchain protocols. Bitcoin avails 1,500pecent returns and Ethereum offers a 10,000 percent return. This attracted many investors on the financial front. Classifying digital asset is a problem for the regulators. A critic is it deals with the black money and evades taxes – is it a scam. Numerous traders had satisfaction using this software and consider it as genuine and legit.







The Three Popular Misconceptions About The Bitcoins

The world of cryptocurrency, especially the Bitcoins is indeed, interesting! On one side lies the interesting benefits of the Bitcoins and, on the other side, the interesting misconceptions about them! The former leads you towards a brighter future whereas the latter prevents you from enjoying and therefore, it is necessary to evade them by understanding the actual facts about the Bitcoins! It is what we are here to do today, where the 3 popular misconceptions would be decoded to know the original purpose or the information behind them!

  • You could only Buy A Whole Bitcoin

Many people, who are interested in owning the Bitcoins, either by mining them or by following the crypto robots believe that they can only buy them as a whole unit, which is wrong! The benefits of investing in the Bitcoins also lies in its divisibility, where it can be divided up to as small as 1/100th millions of Bitcoin that are easily affordable when compared to buying a whole one unit!


  • It’s absolutely anonymous

There are a few, who shun the idea of investing or owning the Bitcoins because of its anonymity, as they feel this anonymous nature invites more darker powers or shadier people to use or appreciate the Bitcoins more! But, in reality, this is not entirely true! That is, the Bitcoin is not completely anonymous, as all the transactions go into the public ledger by citing the public key of yours! Although this public key wouldn’t have your name, it is the same when used from the same Bitcoin wallet address and therefore, by following one or the other ways like, getting your keys (if you lost them or if you share them), hacking, obtaining your mobile one could identify the person behind the transaction!

Well, what we are trying to mean here is, Bitcoin although allows you to be anonymous, you cannot expect that overtly freedom that allows you to evade the law, in case of any misappropriate actions!


  • Bitcoin will be banned soon

Perhaps, the funniest quote of the era! It is OK if you do not believe in the Cryptocurrencies or especially the Bitcoins but, for that, you cannot mislead the people by misquoting! While already few of the popular companies like, Overstock, Microsoft, and Dell started accepting payments in Bitcoin, few of the governments have made the use of virtual currencies legal in their country, which shows not only the Bitcoins, even the other genuine altcoins would not disappear any soon from this globe!

Therefore, it is high time you start investing in the Bitcoins by using uncomplicated means like the Bitcoin Code! But, is the Bitcoin Code legit? Read and Know!

Where to buy Bitcoins and how to trade in them

$8000 and above is still a very decent price for bitcoin and not one to be overlooked. After a dream rise late last year the popular cryptocurrency took a dip by almost 70% but currently it is still doing well.

What is it about cryptocurrencies that are fascinating the public and the industry? The price is proof enough that this cryptocurrency and many more to follow are here to stay despite being looked down by the likes of Warren Buffet.

Sadly, though people are still very confused on how to buy and sell these cryptos. It is not possible to step into a bank or any other financial institute and flash your fiat currency and buy bitcoin. Usually, bitcoins are mined but that requires a lot of server power, money and time.

How to buy bitcoins

But you don’t have to become a bitcoin miner that is for the more serious investor with bigger stakes. Here are a few ways you can get your hands around the enticing bitcoin and its siblings like the Ethereum and Litecoin.

  • The online marketplace is an easily accessible place to buy cryptos especially bitcoin from other users directly.
  • Then there are bitcoin ATMs that sell bitcoin. These ATMs are similar to the regular ATMs and you can use fiat currency to buy bitcoins. Currently, there are over 2393 bitcoin ATMs in the US.
  • But probably the best and the safest for a beginner is to use any of the several digital cryptocurrency exchanges or brokers across the nation

But before you buy your bitcoin you must have a wallet to keep your bitcoins.

Bitcoin Wallet

This is not a physical wallet in which you can store anything. It is basically a set of public and private keys that safeguard your investment. The most convenient wallets are the online and mobile wallets which are cloud-based systems. Hardware wallets are supposed to be the safest but then they are also expensive.

Trading in bitcoin

It is not necessary for you to have actual bitcoins to trade in them. You can get an automated trading system like the Crypto VIP Club to make a foray into cryptocurrency trading. Ok, so you have heard a lot about the scams in the crypto world and are wondering, “Is it a scam?” That is the right thing to do – the question before you proceed; do not invest in any system till you ascertain its authenticity. Visit the United States Securities and Exchanges website to know more about the regulations on these systems.

Things about Ethereum code

If the Bitcoin is the king in the world of cryptocurrency, then Ethereum is the queen. The Ethereum price has rocketed in recent times and it is one of the promising cryptocurrencies. Ethereum is called Programmable money since it is used to write smart contracts and Dapps with an inbuilt programming language called Solidity. Ethereum is just built to overcome bitcoin by doing things which bitcoin did not achieve. Ethereum will let us run programs which can never be hacked by anyone.

How to get Ethereum:

There are just three simple steps to buy or sell there.

  1. Sign up for coinbase:

We have to sign up for a coinbase account so that we will get a safe and secure place to convert our local currency into digital currencies.

  1. Connect our bank account:

We need to give our account details either credit card or debit card details. There will be some verification process before we start an account.

  1. Buy and sell ethereum:

After the signing up process gets over, it will complete our buy and deliver our ethereum. In the same way, we can sell our works.

How to use it:

There is a method for exchanging, storing, and trading ether. That method or program is called Coinbook. It is just an online wallet. It was designed and developed by a design company known as Engine collaborative. That design company came to know that there are many products for the people to manage and view their cryptocurrency. So, they have finally designed this. It minimizes the transaction process and makes easier for the individuals to be drawn to this cryptocurrency. There is no understanding of computer programming or code.

Purpose of ethereum:

Ethereum developers can build anything with freedom. Bitcoin is one particular application of blockchain technology, whereas there code extends the concept of cryptographic proof to trust fewer agreements.

Uses of ethereum:

Ethereum is used in all verticals. Some of them are given below.

  • Ethereum in healthcare:

Ethereum code can be used in health care system. The hospitals around the world can store, access and share the details of the patients.

  • Security:

There is no central server for a hacker to hack our website and misuse our personal information.

  • Privacy:

When there is a central server, the company will collect our personal information and sells it to the advertisers. But, that will never happen here since there is no server.

  • Storing data:

The blockchain technology in Ethereum code can be used to encrypt and transfer data between the server quickly.



Thus conclude that there is good and well in its way to address several concerns which have bogged down the network. It is a runner-up to bitcoin. It will be a major investment in future if they retain and improve the advantages and uses mentioned above.

Through an understanding of Ethereum code

Ethereum code is a trading robot which is automated and is designed by MarcWeston. The founder of this system was working as a software developer with a leading company. It is gaining popularity quickly because of the robots profit-making ability. The binary options trading and the forex trading with help of these types of software are new for the traders. But many of them are complete wastage of money and time. There are quite a lot of scams prevalent in the market, hence you should be cautious with your money.

Features of the Ethereum code

  • Ethereum code has become famous for generating more than 85% success rate
  • In order to place the trades, it uses mostly the common trend indicators
  • It is completely automated
  • It can be easily customized
  • It has a great track record of past performance
  • You have the option to pick the broker from the list of supported brokers who are available to offer service.
  • It is the most convenient and easy to use the system
  • There is no charges associated with it and no other hidden charges
  • It can be used by any user from around the globe, it does not matter which part of the world you are from
  • It offers customer support round the clock

The workings of Ethereum code

The Ethereum code works on advanced risk-averse strategies. It works with the most commonly used indicators to detect the technical trend.  Once you register with the system, the users could configure the settings as per their desire. Traders could choose which money management strategies to be used to conduct trading.  The robot will find the best opportunity even when the market is volatile.

All the details about the Ethereum code could be learned here, all you need to do is to check this out.

Since there is no cost associated with the code, you just have to open the account by visiting the official website.  Traders should know that they can open an account and choose a broker only through the company’s platform.  Whenever a customer gets a broker referred to the company, the company earns referral commission. This is how the robot comes free for you.  They charge the brokers directly and not the customers. Hence you could enjoy all the facility at zero cost and can earn money without any hassle or hard work.


Thedentalimplant blog.com

Dental problems have never spared anyone. Everyone has some issue or the other with their teeth at some point in their lives. While some can be fixed with a simple cleaning or filling, some are more serious and may require one to get implants.

Implants Are For

So, who are these dental implants for? Implants are not reserved for the old or the aged. It can be for people of all ages and could possibly be the best solution for a missing tooth.

However, only a professional dentist can decide if one needs an implant or if there are any other alternatives. What many do,  is decide on their own that they don’t require an implant and they ca handle it despite the missing tooth.

It is common knowledge that everyone will grow and lose one set of teeth as they grow. Once the milk teeth are gone, the next set of teeth that grows is a permanent fixture. Once the jaw has finished growing, one cannot expect nature to handle all the issues.

Many may lose a tooth or may have lost a tooth or teeth due to some issue. For some people, they are just born that way. The solution to all this is to get an implant. Even those who are using removable dentures can go in for a dental implant and leave behind the worry and discomfort of a removable denture.

What To Ask

When you decide to go in for dental implants, you must consult a dentist with the right credentials. It is not as easy as asking for Belleza Consejos, hence here are a few tips to help you out. Here is what you must ask your dentist before you sit in that chair for an implant:

Find out if they are credentialed implant dentist. There are dentists who have the credentials to do an implant and those who don’t. ensure you go to one who has the credentials.  Not only will you be taken care of by a professional, but you will be more at peace too.

Ensure the dentist know about your oral health. If you are a smoker, it can interfere with the entire implant procedure. So let your dentist know you are a smoker, so that they can prescribe accordingly.

Find out the different types of implants available and find out the costs involved too. It is always better to have a budget and ensure you let your dentist know about your budget, so that you don’t end up spending too much.

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About The Blog Author

Teresa Duncan received a degree of Master of Science in Healthcare Management from Marymount University. With over 22 years of healthcare experience (15 in dental), she has unique insight into the world of dentistry. Her specialty is helping dentists and managers increase revenue. By focusing on accounts receivable and insurance management, she helps dentists increase the value of their practice. As a member of the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, she has a special interest in helping dentists identify and safeguard against employee embezzlement.

Teresa is founder and president of Odyssey Management.

She is a Fellow and Educator for the ICOI’s Association of Dental Implant Auxiliaries. Look for more articles from her regarding practice management, dental implants and oral health care news. She was named 2010’s ADIA Educator of the Year.

Teresa is a member-at-large on the board of the Academy of Dental Management Consultants.

Teresa is a Trustee for the auxiliary education-focused DALE Foundation.


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